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Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) : sample preparation guide
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Initial TEM sample preparations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   
    Initial sample preparation technique in material science
        Chemical polishing  
        Dimpling  
        Electropolishing  
        Mechanical polishing  
        Ultrasonic grinding  
        Wheel or wire sawing  
    Common initial sample preparation to material science and biology
        Continuous support film  
        Embedding  
        Holey support film  
        Sandwich technique  
        Substitution-infiltration-embedding at low temperatures  
        Substitution-infiltration-embedding at room temperature  
    Initial sample preparation in biology
        Chemical fixation  
        Physical fixation: cryo-fixation  
TEM sample preparations ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   
    Chemical and electrolytic thinning
        Full bath chemical thinning  
        Full bath electrolytic thinning  
        Twin jet chemical thinning  
        Twin jet electrolytic thinning  
    Ion thinning TEM preparation
        Focused ion beam thinning (FIB)  
        Ion beam thinning  
    Mechanical TEM preparation
        Crushing  
        Cryo-ultramicrotomy  
        Tripod polishing  
        Ultramicrotomy  
        Wedge cleavage  
    Replica TEM preparation
        Direct replica  
        Extractive replicas  
        Freeze-Fracture  
        Indirect replica  
    Specific TEM preparation technique for dispered or ultrafine material
        Fine particles dispersion  
        Frozen hydrated film of single particles  
    Contrast enhencement and labelling TEM preparation
        'Negative staining' Contrast  
        'Positive staining' Contrast  
        Decoration-shadowing contrast  
        Immunolabelling  

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